Jute is a fibrous plant whose stem is thin and cylindrical. The fibers of this cash crop are used to make jute sacks, rugs, sackcloth, ropes, paper and clothes. Jute is cultivated in West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Assam, Tripura, Meghalaya and some lowland parts of Uttar Pradesh in India. One lump of its fiber is 180 kg.
Jute is a fibrous plant whose stem is thin and cylindrical. The fibers of this cash crop are used to make sacks, rugs, sackcloth, ropes, paper and clothes. Jute is cultivated in West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Assam, Tripura, Meghalaya and some lowland parts of Uttar Pradesh in India. One lump of its fiber is 180 kg.
Climate for Jute Farming
24 to 35 degree centigrade temperature is suitable for jute cultivation with hot and humid climate, where there is 100-200 cm of rainfall.
Selection of Soil
For the cultivation of jute, loamy and clay loam soils with flat land, which have sufficient capacity to hold water, are more suitable.
There are two types of jute varieties. First capsularis and second oletorius type.
It is also called white jute. Its leaves are bitter in taste. It is sown in February to March.
JRC- 321 : It is early maturing variety, which is best for early rainfall and low land. It is sown in February-March and harvested in July.
JRC- 212 : Suitable for late sown areas in middle and high ground. Sowing is done in March to April and harvesting is done till the end of July.
UPC- 94 ( Reshma): This variety suitable for lowland soil is sown from third week of February to mid-March.
JRC- 698 : Sowing done at the end of March, this variety is suitable for low land.
Ankit (NDC) : Suitable for low land, this species can be sown from February 15 to March 15.
NDC 9102 : This variety is recommended for eastern Uttar Pradesh.
Its leaves are sweet in taste and it is also called Dev or Tosa jute. Its fiber is better than capsularis. Suitable for high land, this variety is sown from the end of April to May.
JRO- 632 : It is considered suitable for late sowing and high land. Sowing is done from April to the last week of May.
JRO- 878 : This variety is suitable for almost all soils. Sowing is done from mid-March to May. This variety is resistant to premature flowering.
JRO- 7835 : This variety gives good yield due to high fertility power.
JRO- 524 ( New) : If sowing is done from third week of March to April, then it becomes harvestable in 120 to 140 days.
JRO- 66 : This variety gives good yield in 100 days. Sowing is done in May-June.
One plowing should be done with a soil-reversing plow and after 2-3 ploughings with indigenous plow or cultivator, the field should be made friable. The seed of jute is very small, so it is necessary that the soil should be fine-grained. The distance of lines to lines should be 30 cm॰ and plant to plant distance 7-8 cm and depth 2-3 cm by sowing plow. Sowing in rows by seed drill, 4-5 kg seed per hectare is sufficient for Capsularis variety and 3-5 kg seed per hectare for Olitorius type of jute. Sowing by sprinkle method requires 5-6 kg of seed.
Root and stem rot disease: Jute crop can be affected by this disease, due to which sometimes the crop is completely destroyed. To avoid this, the seed should be sown only after treating it. For seed treatment, treatment with Carbendzyme 12% + Mancozeb 63% WP at the rate of 2.5 grams per kg of seed should be done. For biological treatment, Trichoderma viridi should be treated at the rate of 10 gm per kg seed and at the time of final mobilization, 1 kg of Trichoderma viridi mixed with 25 kg of decomposed cow dung should be used.
There is an outbreak of semilooper pests on the jute crop . To control these pests, 600 ml Dicophal 18.5% EC should be sprayed in 200 liters of water per acre of crop.
Manure & Fertilizer management
Fertilizer should be used on the basis of soil test, but if not done, 60:30:30 nitrogen phosphorus and potash should be given for capsularis type varieties. On the other hand, for olitorius type varieties, 40:20:20 kg nitrogen, phosphorus and potash should be given to the crop before sowing at the rate of per hectare. If one ton of decomposed cow dung or compost is applied at the rate of one hectare per hectare 15-20 days before sowing, the yield is good.
Sowing by kund method saves 30 percent water. It is necessary to irrigate with sowing and after that irrigation should be continued after 15-20 days as per requirement. After 4-5 days of irrigation, net weeder should be used in the field. Water logging in the field for a long time is harmful for the crop, so proper drainage management should be done.
Weeding should be done 20-25 days after sowing in the field. Plant-to-plant distance should be reduced to 6-8 cm by removing extra dense plants. Weed control can also be done with weed killer chemicals. Spraying of Pendimethylene 30% EC with 1 liter or Fluchloralin 600 to 800 grams per acre with 200 liters of water should be done before the seedlings grow. For weed control in standing crop, within 30-35 days, spraying of quinalphos ethyl 5% at the rate of 400 ml per acre is effective.
Harvesting and smelting of plants
Harvesting is done to get the best fiber after 100 to 120 days of crop. When harvested early, the yield of fiber is usually low. But the fiber is good in late harvest. Small and thin plants are sorted and tied into separate small bundles and left in the field for two to three days for the leaves to fall.
Bundles of cut plants should be kept in water up to 10 cm॰ depth for 2-3 days. After that, it should be pressed with a piece of heavy stone. Also, care should be taken that the bundle should not touch the bottom surface of the pond. When the condition is normal, the fibers start coming out in 15-20 days.
Fiber removal and drying
The fibers of each plant are taken out separately, washed thoroughly in running clean water and hung on a wire, bamboo etc. and dried in strong sunlight for 3-4 days. The fiber should be turned over during the drying period. The yield of fiber can be obtained by intensive method.
For seed procurement and more information, the Central Jute and Allied Fiber Research Institute, Barrackpore, West Bengal, established by the Government of India for farmers, can be contacted or on the Institute’s website https://crijaf.icar.gov.in/ .